Literaturverzeichnis 2019 bis 2022


Hier finden Sie die Literaturangaben zu den Übersichtsartikeln der
Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie
aus den Jahren 2019 bis 2022



Heft 3, 2022

Heft 2, 2022

Heft 1, 2022


Heft 6, 2021

Heft 5, 2021

Heft 4, 2021

Heft 3, 2021

Heft 2, 2021

Heft 1, 2021


Heft 6, 2020

Heft 5, 2020

Heft 4, 2020

Heft 2, 2020

Heft 1, 2020


Heft 6, 2019

Heft 5, 2019

Heft 4, 2019

Heft 3, 2019

Heft 2, 2019

Heft 1, 2019


Literaturangaben für zwei Artikel aus

Heft 3 / 2022 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Vergleich einer acht- versus fünfzehntägigen Antibiotikatherapie bei beatmungsassoziierter Pneumonie durch P. aeruginosa


1. Chastre J, Wolff M, Fagon J-Y, Chevret S, Thomas F, Wermert D et al. Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003; 290(19):2588–98

2. Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, Muscedere J, Sweeney DA, Palmer LB et al. Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 63(5):e61-e111.

3. Torres A, Niederman MS, Chastre J, Ewig S, Fernandez-Vandellos P, Hanberger H et al. International ERS/ESICM/ESCMID/ALAT guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia: Guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)/ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and Asociación Latinoamericana del Tórax (ALAT). Eur Respir J 2017; 50(3).

4. Leone M, Bouadma L, Bouhemad B, Brissaud O, Dauger S, Gibot S et al. Hospital-acquired pneumonia in ICU. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2018; 37(1):83–98.

5. Bouglé A, Tuffet S, Federici L, Leone M, Monsel A, Dessalle T et al. Comparison of 8 versus 15 days of antibiotic therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized, controlled, open-label trial. Intensive Care Med 2022

6. Dimopoulos G, Poulakou G, Pneumatikos IA, Armaganidis A, Kollef MH, Matthaiou DK. Short- vs long-duration antibiotic regimens for ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest 2013; 144(6):1759–67



Ein Unglück kommt selten allein - Management von opportunistischen Infektionen mit seltenen Pilzen



Rosanne Sprute1,2,3, Oliver A. Cornely1,2,3,4,5



1)        University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Excellence Center for Medical Mycology (ECMM), Cologne, NRW, Germany

2)        University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Chair Translational Research, Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), Cologne, NRW, Germany

3)        German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne, NRW, Germany

4)        University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Clinical Trials Centre Cologne (ZKS Köln), Cologne, NRW, Germany

5)        University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), Cologne, Germany



Prof. Dr. med. Oliver A. Cornely, FACP, FIDSA, FAAM, FECMM


Herderstrasse 52

50931 Köln

Phone: +49 (0) 221 478 85523

Fax: +49 (0) 221 478 1421445



Zitierte Literatur:

1         Lass-Flörl, C. & Cuenca-Estrella, M. Changes in the epidemiological landscape of invasive mould infections and disease. J Antimicrob Chemother 72, i5-i11,

doi:10.1093/jac/dkx028 (2017).

2         Lerolle, N. et al. Breakthrough invasive fungal disease in patients receiving posaconazole primary prophylaxis: a 4-year study. Clin Microbiol Infect 20, O952-959,

doi:10.1111/1469-0691.12688 (2014).

3         Chen, S. C. et al. Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of rare yeast infections: an initiative of the ECMM in cooperation with ISHAM and ASM. Lancet Infect Dis 21, e375-e386,

doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(21)00203-6 (2021).

4         Hoenigl, M. et al. Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of rare mould infections: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology and the American Society for Microbiology. Lancet Infect Dis 21, e246-e257,

doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30784-2 (2021).

5         Sprute, R. et al. All You Need To Know and More about the Diagnosis and Management of Rare Yeast Infections. mBio 12, e0159421,

doi:10.1128/mBio.01594-21 (2021).

6         Sprute, R., Seidel, D., Cornely, O. A. & Hoenigl, M. EHA Endorsement of the Global Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Rare Mold Infection: An Initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in Cooperation With International Society for Human and Animal Mycology and American Society for Microbiology. Hemasphere 5, e519,

doi:10.1097/hs9.0000000000000519 (2021).

7         Nucci, M. et al. Improvement in the outcome of invasive fusariosis in the last decade. Clin Microbiol Infect 20, 580-585,

doi:10.1111/1469-0691.12409 (2014).

8         Seidel, D. et al. Prognostic factors in 264 adults with invasive Scedosporium spp. and Lomentospora prolificans infection reported in the literature and FungiScope(®). Crit Rev Microbiol 45, 1-21,

doi:10.1080/1040841x.2018.1514366 (2019).

9         Sprute, R. et al. Invasive infections with Purpureocillium lilacinum: clinical characteristics and outcome of 101 cases from FungiScope® and the literature. J Antimicrob Chemother 76, 1593-1603,

doi:10.1093/jac/dkab039 (2021).

10       Durán Graeff, L. et al. Invasive infections due to Saprochaete and Geotrichum species: Report of 23 cases from the FungiScope Registry. Mycoses 60, 273-279,

doi:10.1111/myc.12595 (2017).

11       Chagas-Neto, T. C., Chaves, G. M., Melo, A. S. & Colombo, A. L. Bloodstream infections due to Trichosporon spp.: species distribution, Trichosporon asahii genotypes determined on the basis of ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer 1 sequencing, and antifungal susceptibility testing. J Clin Microbiol 47, 1074-1081,

doi:10.1128/jcm.01614-08 (2009).

12       Sedlacek, L. et al. Prevalence of Scedosporium species and Lomentospora prolificans in patients with cystic fibrosis in a multicenter trial by use of a selective medium. J Cyst Fibros 14, 237-241,

doi:10.1016/j.jcf.2014.12.014 (2015).

13       Arastehfar, A. et al. Comparison of 21-Plex PCR and API 20C AUX, MALDI-TOF MS, and rDNA Sequencing for a Wide Range of Clinically Isolated Yeast Species: Improved Identification by Combining 21-Plex PCR and API 20C AUX as an Alternative Strategy for Developing Countries. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 9, 21,

doi:10.3389/fcimb.2019.00021 (2019).

14       Meletiadis, J. et al. In vitro activities of new and conventional antifungal agents against clinical Scedosporium isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46, 62-68,

doi:10.1128/aac.46.1.62-68.2002 (2002).

15       Pfaller, M. A., Messer, S. A., Woosley, L. N., Jones, R. N. & Castanheira, M. Echinocandin and triazole antifungal susceptibility profiles for clinical opportunistic yeast and mold isolates collected from 2010 to 2011: application of new CLSI clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values for characterization of geographic and temporal trends of antifungal resistance. J Clin Microbiol 51, 2571-2581,

doi:10.1128/jcm.00308-13 (2013).

16       Hoenigl, M. et al. The Antifungal Pipeline: Fosmanogepix, Ibrexafungerp, Olorofim, Opelconazole, and Rezafungin. Drugs 81, 1703-1729,

doi:10.1007/s40265-021-01611-0 (2021).

17       Sprute, R., Bethe, U., Chen, S. C. & Cornely, O. A. EQUAL Trichosporon Score 2022: an ECMM score to measure QUALity of the clinical management of invasive Trichosporon infections. J Antimicrob Chemother,

doi:10.1093/jac/dkac085 (2022).

18       Stemler, J., Lackner, M., Chen, S. C., Hoenigl, M. & Cornely, O. A. EQUAL Score Scedosporiosis/ Lomentosporiosis 2021: a European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) tool to quantify guideline adherence. J Antimicrob Chemother 77, 253-258,

doi:10.1093/jac/dkab355 (2021).

19       Seidel, D. et al. FungiScope(™) -Global Emerging Fungal Infection Registry. Mycoses 60, 508-516,

doi:10.1111/myc.12631 (2017).



Literaturangaben für den Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 2 / 2022 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Medikamentöse Therapie bei COVID-19: was ist neu?


  1. Kluge S et al.

AWMF-Register-Nr. 113/001, Feb 2022;

  1. Gupta A et al.

N Engl J Med. 2021 Nov 18;385(21):1941-1950, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2107934.

  1. Hammond J et al.

N Engl J Med. 2022 Feb 16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2118542.

  1. Bernal AJ et al.

NEJM: 2021. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2116044

  1. Gottlieb RL et al.

 N Engl J Med. 2021 Dec 22. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2116846.

  1. Munch MW et al.

Jama. 2021;326(18):1807-17. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.18295

  1. Maskin LP et al.

J Intensive Care Med. 2021:8850666211066799. doi:10.1177/08850666211066799

  1. Taboada M et al.

Eur Respir J. 2021. doi:10.1183/13993003.02518-2021

  1.  Toroghi N et al.

Pharmacol Rep. 2022;74(1):229-40. doi:10.1007/s43440-021-00341-0

  1. Marconi VC et al.

Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Aug 31;S2213-2600(21)00331-3. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00331-3.

  1. Kalil AC et al.

N Engl J Med: 2021; 384:795-807.

  1. Ely EW et al

Lancet. Respiratory medicine, S2213-2600(22)00006-6. 3 Feb. 2022, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(22)00006-6

  1. Kyriazopoulou E et al.

Nat Med. 2021 Sep 3. doi: 10.1038/s41591-021-01499-z.

  1. Tharaux P et al.

Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Mar;9(3):295-304. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30556-7

  1. Declercq J et al.

Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Dec;9(12):1427-1438. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00377-5.

  1. Kharazmi AB et al.

Immun Inflamm Dis. 2022 Feb; 10(2): 201–208. doi: 10.1002/iid3.563



Literaturangaben für zwei Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 1 / 2022 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Next Generation Sequencing


  1. Lander ES et al. International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 2001 Feb 15;409(6822):860-921. doi: 10.1038/35057062. PMID: 11237011
  2. International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome. Nature 2004 Oct 21;431(7011):931-45. doi: 10.1038/nature03001. PMID: 15496913
  3. Wang J, Han Y, Feng J. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing for mixed pulmonary infection diagnosis. BMC Pulm Med 2019 Dec 19;19(1):252. doi: 10.1186/s12890-019-1022-4. PMID: 31856779, PMCID: PMC6921575
  4. Liu N, Kan J, Cao W, Cao J, Jiang E, Zhou Y, Zhao M, Feng J. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary infectious lesions through virtual navigation, radial EBUS, ultrathin bronchoscopy, and ROSE. J Int Med Res 2019 Oct;47(10):4878-4885. doi: 10.1177/0300060519866953. Epub 2019 Aug 22. PMID: 31436107, PMCID: PMC6833387
  5. Zinter MS, Dvorak CC, Mayday MY, Iwanaga K, Ly NP, McGarry ME, Church GD, Faricy LE, Rowan CM, Hume JR, Steiner ME, Crawford ED, Langelier C, Kalantar K, Chow ED, Miller S, Shimano K, Melton A, Yanik GA, Sapru A, DeRisi JL. Pulmonary Metagenomic Sequencing Suggests Missed Infections in Immunocompromised Children. Clin Infect Dis 2019 May 17;68(11):1847-1855. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy802. PMID: 30239621, PMCID: PMC6784263
  6. Zhou X, Wu H, Ruan Q, Jiang N, Chen X, Shen Y, Zhu YM, Ying Y, Qian YY, Wang  X, Ai JW, Zhang WH. Clinical Evaluation of Diagnosis Efficacy of Active Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infection via Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing of Direct Clinical Samples. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 Oct 18;9:351. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00351. eCollection 2019. PMID: 31681628, PMCID: PMC6813183
  7. Stone JM, Savage A, Hudspeth M, Twombley K, Kasi N, Quiros JA, Arbizu RA, Curry S. Multi-organism gastrointestinal polymerase chain reaction positivity among pediatric transplant vs non-transplant populations: A single-center experience. Pediatr Transplant 2020 Sep;24(6):e13771. doi: 10.1111/petr.13771. Epub 2020 Jul 8. PMID: 32639105
  8. Vila J, Bosch J, Muñoz-Almagro C. Molecular diagnosis of the central nervous system (CNS) infections. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2020 Apr 25;S0213-005X(20)30168-3. doi: 10.1016/j.eimc.2020.03.001. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32345489
  9. Briggs N, Campbell S, Gupta S. Advances in rapid diagnostics for bloodstream infections. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jan;99(1):115219. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115219. Epub 2020 Sep 22. PMID: 33059201
  10. Besser J, Carleton HA, Gerner-Smidt P, Lindsey RL, Trees E. Next-generation sequencing technologies and their application to the study and control of bacterial infections. Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Apr;24(4):335-341. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.10.013. Epub 2017 Oct 23. PMID: 29074157, PMCID: PMC5857210
  11. Bassetti M , Peghin M. How to manage KPC infections. Ther Adv Infect Dis 2020 May 14;7:2049936120912049. doi: 10.1177/2049936120912049. eCollection Jan-Dec 2020. PMID: 32489663, PMCID: PMC7238785
  12. Jabbour JF, Sharara SL, Kanj SS. Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative skin and soft tissue infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2020 Apr;33(2):146-154. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000635. PMID: 32022742
  13. Noval M, Banoub M, Claeys KC, Heil E. The Battle Is on: New Beta-Lactams for the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Organisms. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2020 Jan 13;22(1):1. doi: 10.1007/s11908-020-0710-9. PMID: 31933158
  14. Yu X, Zhang W, Zhao Z, Ye C, Zhou S, Wu S, Han L, Han Z, Ye H. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with focus on antimicrobial resistance. BMC Genomics 2019 Nov 7;20(1):822. doi: 10.1186/s12864-019-6225-9. PMID: 31699025, PMCID: PMC6839148
  15. Mansour W, Grami R, Jaidane N, Messaoudi A, Charfi K, Romdhane LB, Haj Khalifa AB, Khedher M, Boujaafar N, Bouallègue O, Mammeri H. Epidemiology and Whole-Genome Analysis of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae KP3771 from Tunisia. Microb Drug Resist 2019 Jun;25(5):644-651. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2018.0204. Epub 2019 Jan 2. PMID: 30614778
  16. Fu L, Wang S, Zhang Z, Hu X, Zhang L, Zhu B, Wang G, Long H, Zhou Y. Whole genome sequence of bla NDM and bla KPC co-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate KSH203 with capsular serotype K25 belonging to ST11 from China. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2020 Mar;20:272-274. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2020.01.006. Epub 2020 Jan 30. PMID: 32007616
  17. Ramsamy Y, Mlisana KP, Amoako DG, Allam M, Ismail A, Singh R, Abia ALK, Essack SY. Pathogenomic Analysis of a Novel Extensively Drug-Resistant Citrobacter freundii Isolate Carrying a bla NDM-1 Carbapenemase in South Africa. Pathogens 2020 Jan 31;9(2):89. doi: 10.3390/pathogens9020089. PMID: 32024012, PMCID: PMC7168644
  18. Huang J, Ma S, Yu Q, Fu M, Shao L, Shan X, Li X. Whole genome sequence of an Escherichia coli ST410 isolate co-harbouring bla NDM-5, bla OXA-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-2, aac(3)-IIa and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes isolated from a patient with bloodstream infection in China. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Dec;19:354-355. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.10.027. Epub 2019 Nov 5. PMID: 31698110
  19. Johnsen CH, Clausen PTLC, Aarestrup FM, Lund O. Improved Resistance Prediction in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Better Handling of Insertions and Deletions, Premature Stop Codons, and Filtering of Non-informative Sites. Front Microbiol 2019 Oct 31;10:2464. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02464. eCollection 2019. PMID: 31736907, PMCID: PMC6834686
  20. Eyler AB, M'ikanatha NM, Xiaoli L, Dudley EG. Whole-genome sequencing reveals resistome of highly drug-resistant retail meat and human Salmonella Dublin. Zoonoses Public Health 2020 May;67(3):251-262. doi: 10.1111/zph.12680. Epub 2019 Dec 22. PMID: 31867871
  21. Steinig EJ, Duchene S, Robinson DA, Monecke S, Yokoyama M, Laabei M, Slickers P, Andersson P, Williamson D, Kearns A, Goering RV, Dickson E, Ehricht R, Ip M, O'Sullivan MVN, Coombs GW, Petersen A, Brennan G, Shore AC, Coleman DC, Pantosti A, de Lencastre H, Westh H, Kobayashi N, Heffernan H, Strommenger B, Layer F, Weber S, Vangstein Aamot H, Skakni L, Peacock SJ, Sarovich D, Harris S, Parkhill J, Massey RC, Holden MTG, Bentley SD, Tong SYC. Evolution and Global Transmission of a Multidrug-Resistant, Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lineage from the Indian Subcontinent. mBio 2019 Nov 26;10(6):e01105-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01105-19. PMID: 31772058, PMCID: PMC6879714
  22. Kersh EN, Pham CD, Papp JR, Myers R, Steece R, Kubin G, Gautom R, Nash EE, Sharpe S, Gernert KM, Schmerer M, Raphael BH, Henning T, Gaynor AM, Soge O, Schlanger K, Kirkcaldy RD, St Cyr SB, Torrone EA, Bernstein K, Weinstock H. Expanding U.S. Laboratory Capacity for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and Whole-Genome Sequencing through the CDC's Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network. J Clin Microbiol 2020 Mar 25;58(4):e01461-19. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01461-19. Print 2020 Mar 25. PMID: 32024723, PMCID: PMC7098741
  23. Rasko DA, Del Canto F, Luo Q, Fleckenstein JM, Vidal R, Hazen TH. Comparative genomic analysis and molecular examination of the diversity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from Chile. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Nov 20;13(11):e0007828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007828. eCollection 2019 Nov. PMID: 31747410, PMCID: PMC6901236
  24. Yang X, Bai X, Zhang J, Sun H, Fu S, Fan R, He X, Scheutz F, Matussek A, Xiong Y. Escherichia coli strains producing a novel Shiga toxin 2 subtype circulate in China. Int J Med Microbiol 2020 Jan;310(1):151377. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2019.151377. Epub 2019 Nov 9. PMID: 31757694
  25. Chorlton SD, Ritchie G, Lawson T, Romney MG, Lowe CF. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Isolates Recovered from an Inner-City Population Demonstrates the Predominance of a Single Molecular Strain. J Clin Microbiol 2020 Jan 28;58(2):e01651-19. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01651-19. Print 2020 Jan 28. PMID: 31748323, PMCID: PMC6989084
  26. McTavish SM, Snow SJ, Cook EC, Pichon B, Coleman S, Coombs GW, Pang S, Arias CA, Díaz L, Boldock E, Davies S, Udukala M, Kearns AM, Siribaddana S, de Silva TI. Genomic and Epidemiological Evidence of a Dominant Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-Positive Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lineage in Sri Lanka and Presence Among Isolates From the United Kingdom and Australia. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 Apr 26;9:123. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00123. eCollection 2019. PMID: 31080781, PMCID: PMC6497808
  27. Shaw HA, Preston MD, Vendrik KEW, Cairns MD, Browne HP, Stabler RA, Crobach  MJT, Corver J, Pituch H, Ingebretsen A, Pirmohamed M, Faulds-Pain A, Valiente E, Lawley TD, Fairweather NF, Kuijper EJ, Wren BW. The recent emergence of a highly related virulent Clostridium difficile clade with unique characteristics. Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Apr;26(4):492-498. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.09.004. Epub 2019 Sep 13. PMID: 31525517, PMCID: PMC7167513
  28.  Brandt C, Viehweger A, Singh A, Pletz MW, Wibberg D, Kalinowski J, Lerch S, Müller B, Makarewicz O. Assessing genetic diversity and similarity of 435 KPC-carrying plasmids. Sci Rep. 2019 Aug 2;9(1):11223. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-47758-5. PMID: 31375735; PMCID: PMC6677891
  29. Xu F, Ge C, Luo H, Li S, Wiedmann M, Deng X, Zhang G, Stevenson A, Baker RC, Tang S. Evaluation of real-time nanopore sequencing for Salmonella serotype prediction. Food Microbiol. 2020 Aug;89:103452
    doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2020 Feb 5. PMID: 32138998.


Cefiderocol - neue Studien mit dem Siderophor-Cephalosporin


1. Thelen P, Henriksen AS, Longshaw C, Yamano Y, Caldwell B, Hamprecht A. In vitro activity of cefiderocol against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in Germany. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2021 Dec 14;28:12-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2021.10.029. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34920174.


2. Yao J, Wang J, Chen M, Cai Y. Cefiderocol: An Overview of Its in-vitro/ and in-vivo Activity and Underlying Resistant Mechanisms. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Dec 7;8:741940. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.741940. PMID: 34950677; PMCID: PMC8688709.


3. Wunderink RG, Matsunaga Y et al. (2020) Cefiderocol versus high-dose, extended-infusion meropenem for the treatment of Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia (APEKS-NP): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority trial. Published online October 12, 2020;  Lancet Infect Dis 2021;21(2):213-225


4. Portsmouth S, van Veenhuyzen D, Echols R et al. Cefiderocol versus imipenem-cilastatin for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative uropathogens: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Infect Dis. (2018) 18:1319–28. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30554-1


5. Bassetti M, Echols R et al. Efficacy and safety of cefiderocol or best available therapy for the treatment of serious infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CREDIBLE-CR): a randomised, open-label, multicentre, pathogen-focused, descriptive, phase 3 trial. Infect Dis 2021;21(2):226-240


6. Pascale R et al. Cefiderocol treatment for carbapenem-
resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in the ICU during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multicentre cohort study. JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2021 Nov 17;3(4):dlab174. doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlab174. PMID: 34806011; PMCID: PMC8599913.


7. Skaar EP, Echols R, Matsunaga Y, Menon A, Portsmouth S. Iron serum levels and iron homeostasis parameters in patients with nosocomial pneumonia treated with cefiderocol: post hoc analysis of the APEKS-NP study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2022 Jan 13. doi: 10.1007/s10096-021-04399-9. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35025025.




Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 6 / 2021 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Therapie von Aspergillus-Infektionen


1. Thompson GR 3rd, Young JH. Aspergillus Infections. N Engl J Med. 2021 Oct 14;385(16):1496-1509. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra2027424. PMID: 34644473.


2. Maertens JA et al. Posaconazole versus voriconazole for primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis: a phase 3, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2021 Feb 6;397(10273):499-509. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00219-1. Erratum in: Lancet. 2021 Aug 7;398(10299):490. PMID: 33549194.


3. Herbrecht R et al. Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. N Engl J Med. 2002 Aug 8;347(6):408-15. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa020191. PMID: 12167683.


4. Maertens JA et al. Isavuconazole versus voriconazole for primary treatment of invasive mould disease caused by Aspergillus and other filamentous fungi (SECURE): a phase 3, randomised-controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2016 Feb 20;387(10020):760-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01159-9. Epub 2015 Dec 10. PMID: 26684607.


5. Groll AH et al. Drug-drug interactions between triazole antifungal agents used to treat invasive aspergillosis and immunosuppressants metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. Transpl Infect Dis. 2017 Oct;19(5). doi: 10.1111/tid.12751. Epub 2017 Sep 28. PMID: 28722255.


6. Marr KA et al. Combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jan 20;162(2):81-9. doi: 10.7326/M13-2508.


Affiliationen der Autoren und

Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 5 / 2021 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Long-/Post-COVID - eine klinische Übersicht für Behandelnde, basierend auf der aktuellen S1-Leitlinie


Affiliationen der Autoren:


Koczulla AR1,2,3, Glöckl R1,2,3 und Pletz M4

  1. Pneumologische Rehabilitation, Philipps Universität Marburg, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Universität Giessen/Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Marburg, Deutschland
  2. Forschungsinstitut für Pneumologische Rehabilitation, Schön Klinik Berchtesgadener Land, Schönau am Königssee, Deutschland
  3. Lehrkrankenhaus der Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität Salzburg, Österreich
  4. Institut für Infektionsmedizin und Krankenhaushygiene, Universitätsklinikum Jena




1.        Koczulla AR, Ankermann T, Behrends U, Berlit P, Boing S, Brinkmann F, et al. [S1 Guideline Post-COVID/Long-COVID]. Pneumologie. 2021 Sep 2.


2.        Kluge S, Janssens U, Welte T, Weber-Carstens S, Schalte G, Spinner CD, et al. [S2k Guideline - Recommendations for Inpatient Therapy of Patients with COVID-19]. Pneumologie. 2021 Feb;75(2):88-112.


3.        Sudre CH, Murray B, Varsavsky T, Graham MS, Penfold RS, Bowyer RC, et al. Attributes and predictors of long COVID. Nat Med. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2021 Apr;27(4):626-31.


4.        Wong AW, Shah AS, Johnston JC, Carlsten C, Ryerson CJ. Patient-reported outcome measures after COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. Eur Respir J. [Letter]. 2020 Nov;56(5).


5.        Hopkinson NS, Jenkins G, Hart N. COVID-19 and what comes after? Thorax. [Editorial Comment]. 2021 Apr;76(4):324-5.


6.        Gupta A, Madhavan MV, Sehgal K, Nair N, Mahajan S, Sehrawat TS, et al. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Nat Med. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. [Review]. 2020 Jul;26(7):1017-32.


7.        Nacul L, Authier FJ, Scheibenbogen C, Lorusso L, Helland IB, Martin JA, et al. European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE): Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis, Service Provision, and Care of People with ME/CFS in Europe. Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 May 19;57(5).


8.        DEGAM. Leitlinie Müdigkeit.  2020; Available from:


9.        DEGAM. Leitlinie Schwindel. Available from:


10.      DEGAM. Leitlinie Husten.  2014; Available from:


11.      DEGAM. Leitlinie Schutz vor Über- und Unterversorgung - gemeinsam entscheiden.  2021; Available from:ÜberUnterversorgung%20_2021.pdf.


12.      Nacul L, Authier FJ, Scheibenbogen C, Lorusso L, Helland IB, Martin JA, et al. European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE): Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis, Service Provision, and Care of People with ME/CFS in Europe. Medicina. 2021;57(5):510.


13.      Centre NG. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (or encephalopathy)/chronic fatigue syndrome: diagnosis and management.  2021; Available from:


14.      Mitchell L. COVID in the older adult.  2020; Available from:


15.      Klok FA, Boon G, Barco S, Endres M, Geelhoed JJM, Knauss S, et al. The Post-COVID-19 Functional Status scale: a tool to measure functional status over time after COVID-19. Eur Respir J. [Letter]. 2020 Jul;56(1).


16.      Machado FVC, Meys R, Delbressine JM, Vaes AW, Goertz YMJ, van Herck M, et al. Construct validity of the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status Scale in adult subjects with COVID-19. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2021 Feb 3;19(1):40.


17.      Lund LC, Hallas J, Nielsen H, Koch A, Mogensen SH, Brun NC, et al. Post-acute effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals not requiring hospital admission: a Danish population-based cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2021.


18.      Townsend L, Dowds J, O'Brien K, Sheill G, Dyer AH, O'Kelly B, et al. Persistent Poor Health Post-COVID-19 Is Not Associated with Respiratory Complications or Initial Disease Severity. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2021(ja).


19.      Laviolette L, Laveneziana P. Dyspnoea: a multidimensional and multidisciplinary approach. European Respiratory Journal. 2014;43(6):1750-62.



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Heft 4 / 2021 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Neue S3-Leitlinie "Ambulant erwordene Pneumonie"


Ewig S, Kolditz M, Pletz M et al. Pneumologie 2021 (1. Juli 2021, eFirst online)



Literaturangaben zu zwei Übersichtsartikeln aus

Heft 3 / 2021 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


1. Therapie von invasiven Enterokokkken-Infektionen


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2. Epidemiologisches Bulletin Robert-Koch-Institut, Eigenschaften, Häufigkeit und Verbreitung von Vancomycin-resistenten Enterokokken in Deutschland, Update 2017/2018 (Zugegriffen: 08. Mai 2021)


3. Ch'ng JH, Chong KKL, Lam LN, Wong JJ, Kline KA. Biofilm-associated infection by enterococci. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019 Jan;17(2):82-94


4. Hollenbeck BL, Rice LB. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus. Virulence. 2012 Aug 15;3(5):421-33


5. Miller WR, Munita JM, Arias CA. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in enterococci. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2014 Oct;12(10):1221-36


6. Kresken M, Resistenzsituation bei klinisch wichtigen Infektionserregern gegenüber Antibiotika in Deutschland und im mitteleuropäischen Raum. Bericht über die Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen Studie der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Empfindlichkeitsprüfungen & Resistenz der Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft für Chemotherapie e.V. aus dem Jahre 1998/2001/2004/ 2007


7. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) (2019) Data from the ECDC Surveillance Atlas - antimicrobial resistance. Zugegriffen: 08. Mai 2021


8. Leavis HL, Bonten MJ, Willems RJ. Identification of high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes: global dispersion and antibiotic resistance. Curr Opin Microbiol 2006;9:454–60


9. Gavaldà J et al. Efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis strains highly resistant to aminoglycosides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Mar;43(3):639-46


10. Fernández-Hidalgo N et al. Ampicillin plus ceftriaxone is as effective as ampicillin plus gentamicin for treating enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 May;56(9):1261-8


11. Habib G et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis: The Task Force for the Management of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by: European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Eur Heart J. 2015 Nov 21;36(44):3075-3128


12. Beganovic M, Luther MK, Rice LB, Arias CA, Rybak MJ, LaPlante KL. A Review of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy for Enterococcus faecalis Bloodstream Infections and Infective Endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 2;67(2):303-309


13. Rosselli Del Turco E, Bartoletti M, Dahl A, Cervera C, Pericàs JM. How do I manage a patient with enterococcal bacteraemia? Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Mar;27(3):364-371


14. Shi C, Jin W, Xie Y, Zhou D, Xu S, Li Q, Lin N. Efficacy and safety of daptomycin versus linezolid treatment in patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Jun;21:235-245


2. COVID-19: Sind inhalative Glukokorti-koide zur Therapie geeignet?


1. Matsuyama S et al. The Inhaled Steroid Ciclesonide Blocks SARS-CoV-2 RNA Replication by Targeting the Viral Replication-Transcription Complex in Cultured Cells. J Virol. 2020 Dec 9;95(1):e01648-20


2. Skevaki C, Karsonova A, Karaulov A, Xie M, Renz H. Asthma-associated risk for COVID-19 development. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec;146(6):1295-1301


3. Finney LJ et al. Inhaled corticosteroids downregulate the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 in COPD through suppression of type I interferon. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021: 510-519


4. Peters MC et al. COVID-19-related Genes in Sputum Cells in Asthma. Relationship to Demographic Features and Corticosteroids. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Jul 1;202(1):83-90. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202003-0821OC. Erratum in: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Dec 15;202(12):1744-1746


5. Ramakrishnan S et al. Inhaled budesonide in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2021 (published online, April 9)


6. Stellungnahme der DGP (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin). Therapie mit inhalativen Glukokortikoiden bei COVID-19


7. Yu L-M et al. Inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in people at higher risk of adverse outcomes in the commiunity: interim analyses from the PRINCIPLE trial. medRxiv preprint (posted April 12, 2021)


8. Mahase E. Covid-19: budesonide shortens recovery time in patients not admitted to hospital, study finds. BMJ 2021; 373:n957




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Heft 2 / 2021 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


COVID-19-Therapie mit Antikörpern


1. Tuccori M et al. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: clinical pipeline. MAbs. 2020 Jan-Dec;12(1):1854149


2. Simonovich VA et al. A Randomized Trial of Convalescent Plasma in Covid-19 Severe Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2021;384:619-629


3. Janiaud P et al. Association of Convalescent Plasma Treatment With Clinical Outcomes in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2021;325:1185-1195


4. Libster R et al. Fundación INFANT–COVID-19 Group. Early High-Titer Plasma Therapy to Prevent Severe Covid-19 in Older Adults. N Engl J Med. 2021 Feb 18;384(7):610-618


5. Katz LM. (A Little) Clarity on Convalescent Plasma for Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Feb 18;384(7):666-668


6. Hansen J et al. Studies in humanized mice and convalescent humans yield a SARS-CoV-2 antibody cocktail. Science 2020 Aug 21;369(6506):1010-1014


7. Weinreich DM et al. REGN-COV2, a Neutralizing Antibody Cocktail, in Outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 21;384(3):238-251


8. Fact Sheet for Health Care Providers. Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of Casirivimab und Imdevimab (PDF-Datei)


9. Jones BE et al. LY-CoV555, a rapidly isolated potent neutralizing antibody, provides protection in a non-human primate model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. bioRxiv preprint; October 9, 2020


10. Chen P et al.. SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody LY-CoV555 in Outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 21;384(3):229-237


11. Fact Sheet for Health Care Providers. Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of Bamlanivimab


12. Gottlieb RL et al. Effect of Bamlanivimab as Monotherapy or in Combination With Etesevimab on Viral Load in Patients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021 Feb 16;325(7):632-644


13.Kim C et al. A therapeutic neutralizing antibody targeting receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Nat Commun. 2021 Jan 12;12(1):288



Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 1 / 2021 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie




1. Krammer F. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):516-527


2. WHO. Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines.


3. Batty CJ, Heise MT, Bachelder EM, Ainslie KM. Vaccine formulations in clinical development for the prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2021;169:168-189


4. Karikó K, Muramatsu H, Welsh FA, Ludwig J, Kato H, Akira S, Weissman D. Incorporation of pseudouridine into mRNA yields superior nonimmunogenic vector with increased translational capacity and biological stability. Mol Ther. 2008 Nov;16(11):1833-40


5. Sahin U et al. COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b1 elicits human antibody and TH1 T cell responses. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):594-599


6. Walsh EE et al.. Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2439-2450


7. EMA 2020. Comirnaty product information as approved by the CHMP on December 21, 2020, pending endorsement by the European Commission


8. Polack FP et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020;383: 2603- 2615


9. FDA Briefing Document. Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine. Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee Meeting. December 17, 2020


10. Baden LR et al.; COVE Study Group. Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 30. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. Epub ahead of print.


11. EMA , 6. Januar 2021 Moderna Product Information


12. Kremsner P et al. Phase I Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an mRNA-Lipid Nanopartikel Vaccine Candidate against SARS-CoV-2 in Human Volunteers. medRxiv preprint, November 9, 2020


13. Curevac, Clinical Trial Protocol. A Phase 2b/3, Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Clinical Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Investigational SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine CVnCoV in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older. 14. Dezember 2020


14. Folegatti P et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1 / 2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet (published online, July 20, 2020)


15. AstraZeneca News Release, AZD1222 vaccine met primary efficacy endpoint in preventing COVID-19. Two different dosing regimens demonstrated efficacy with one showing a better profile. November 23, 2020


16. Ramasamy MN et al.; Oxford COVID Vaccine Trial Group. Safety and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine administered in a prime-boost regimen in young and old adults (COV002): a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet. 2020 Nov 18:S0140-6736(20) 32466-1 Epub ahead of print.


17. Mercado NB et al., Single-shot Ad26 vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):583-588


18. Johnson & Johnson engagiert sich im Kampf gegen das Coronavirus. Unser Engagement gegen COVID-19. Stand: 18.12.2020




Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 6 / 2020 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Therapie der chronischen Hepatitis C


1. Kolykhalov AA, Agapov EV, Blight KJ, Mihalik K, Feinstone SM, Rice CM. Transmission of hepatitis C by intrahepatic inoculation with transcribed RNA. Science. 1997 Jul 25;277(5325):570-4


2. Zimmermann R, Bremer V, Kollan C, Krings A, Schmidt D, Steffen G, Dudareva S: Zur Situation bei wichtigen Infektionskrankheiten in Deutschland – Hepatitis C im Jahr 2019. Epid Bull 2020;30/31:18-31


3. Bukh J, Purcell RH. A milestone for hepatitis C virus research: a virus generated in cell culture is fully viable in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 7;103(10):3500-1


4. EASL (European Association for the Study of the Liver) EASL recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C: Final update of the series. J Hepatol. 2020 Sep 15:S0168-8278(20)30548-1


5. Sarrazin C, Zimmermann T et al. S3-Leitlinie „Prophylaxe, Diagnostik und Therapie der Hepatitis-C-Virus (HCV)-Infektion (AWMF-Register-Nr.: 021/012). Z Gastroenterol 2018; 56: 756–838


6. Esposito I, Trinks J, Soriano V. Hepatitis C virus resistance to the new direct-acting antivirals. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2016 Oct;12(10):1197-209


7. Lohse AW, Huber S. Magen-Darm-Mittel und Lebertherapeutika. in: Arzneiverordnungs-Report 2020. U. Schwabe, W.-D. Ludwig (Hrsg.), Springer 2020, S. 615-642



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Heft 5 / 2020 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Entscheidungszeitpunkte einer rationalen Antibiotikatherapie


1: Marston HD, Dixon DM, Knisely JM, Palmore TN, Fauci AS. Antimicrobial Resistance. JAMA. 2016 Sep 20;316(11):1193-1204


2: Tamma PD, Avdic E, Keenan JF, Zhao Y, Anand G, Cooper J, Dezube R, Hsu S, Cosgrove SE. What Is the More Effective Antibiotic Stewardship Intervention: Preprescription Authorization or Postprescription Review With Feedback? Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 1;64(5):537-543


3: Tamma PD, Miller MA, Cosgrove SE. Rethinking How Antibiotics Are Prescribed: Incorporating the 4 Moments of Antibiotic Decision Making Into Clinical Practice. JAMA. 2019 Jan 15;321(2):139-140


4: Cai T, Nesi G, Mazzoli S, Meacci F, Lanzafame P, Caciagli P, Mereu L, Tateo S, Malossini G, Selli C, Bartoletti R. Asymptomatic bacteriuria treatment is associated with a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains in women with urinary tract infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 1;61(11):1655-61


5: Olans RN, Olans RD, DeMaria A Jr. The Critical Role of the Staff Nurse in Antimicrobial Stewardship--Unrecognized, but Already There. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 1;62(1):84-9


6: Spellberg B. The New Antibiotic Mantra-"Shorter Is Better". JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Sep 1;176(9):1254-5



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Heft 4 / 2020 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Therapie der COVID-19 - eine aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme


1 Ackermann M et al. Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis, and Angiogenesis in Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383-120-128


2 Rello J, Storti E, Belliato M, Serrano R. Clinical phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2: implications for clinicians and researchers. Eur Respir J. 2020 May 21;55(5):2001028


3 Siddiqi HK, Mehra MR. COVID-19 illness in native and immunosuppressed states: a clinical-therapeutic staging proposal. J Heart Lung Transplant 2020; 39: 405–07


4 Beigel JH et al., ACTT-1 Study Group Members. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 – Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 22 (Epub ahead of print). 


Supplementary Appendix


5 FDA Fact sheet REMDESIVIR for healthcare professionals.


6 Wang Y et al.  Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2020 May 16;395(10236):1569-1578


7 Sinha P, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Is a "Cytokine Storm" Relevant to COVID-19? JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Jun 30 Epub ahead of print.


8 Guaraldi G et al. Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Rheumatol 2020;2:e474-e484


9 Horby P et al. Effect of Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 – Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med 2020 (ahead of print, July 17, 2020)


10 Russell CD, Millar JE, Baillie JK. Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury. Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):473-475


11 Arshad S et al. Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, and Combination in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19. Int J Inf Dis 2020; 97: 396–403


12 Horby P, Landray M. No clinical benefit from use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Statement from the Chief Investigators of the Randomised Evaluation of COVid-19 thERapY (RECOVERY) Trial on hydroxychloroquine, 5 June 2020


13 Mehra MR, Desai SS, Ruschitzka F, Patel AN. RETRACTED: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis. Lancet. 2020 May 22:S0140-6736(20)31180-6. RETRACTED


14 Yao X et al. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of  optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 9:ciaa237 Epub ahead of print


15 Fan J et al. Connecting hydroxychloroquine in vitro antiviral activity to in vivo concentration for prediction of antiviral effect: a critical step in treating COVID-19 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 May 21:ciaa623 Epub ahead of print.


16 MacGowan A et al. Hydroxychloroquine serum concentartion in non-critical care aptients infected with SARS-CoV-2. (June 23, 2020, medRxiv preprint)





Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 2 / 2020 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Therapie der ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie

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Heft 1 / 2020 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Bessere Verträglichkeit von Antibiotika – was können Antibiotic Stewardship-Programme dazu beitragen?


1. Geller AI, Lovegrove MC, Shehab N, Hicks LA, Sapiano MRP, Budnitz DS. National Estimates of Emergency Department Visits for Antibiotic Adverse Events Among Adults-United States, 2011-2015. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 Jul;33(7):1060-1068 FREE FULL TEXT


2. Bauer KA, Kullar R, Gilchrist M, File TM Jr. Antibiotics and adverse events: the role of antimicrobial stewardship programs in 'doing no harm'. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2019 Dec;32(6):553-558 PubMed


3. Tamma PD, Avdic E, Li DX, Dzintars K, Cosgrove SE. Association of Adverse Events With Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Sep 1;177(9):1308-1315 FREE FULL TEXT


4. Blumenthal KG, Peter JG, Trubiano JA, Phillips EJ. Antibiotic allergy. Lancet. 2019 Jan 12;393(10167):183-198 Review FREE FULL TEXT


5. Castells M, Khan DA, Phillips EJ. Penicillin Allergy. N Engl J Med. 2019 Dec 12;381(24):2338-2351 Review. PubMed


6. Blumenthal KG et al. Outcomes from an inpatient beta-lactam allergy guideline across a large US health system. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 May;40(5):528-535 PubMed


7. Shenoy ES, Macy E, Rowe T, Blumenthal KG. Evaluation and Management of Penicillin Allergy: A Review. JAMA. 2019 Jan 15;321(2):188-199 Review. PubMed


8. Jones BM, Avramovski N, Concepcion AM, Crosby J, Bland CM. Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Penicillin Skin Testing as an Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiative in a Community Health System. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 27;6(4):ofz109 FREE FULL TEXT


9.Vaughn VM, Flanders SA, Snyder A, Conlon A, Rogers MAM, Malani AN, McLaughlin E, Bloemers S, Srinivasan A, Nagel J, Kaatz S, Osterholzer D, Thyagarajan R, Hsaiky L, Chopra V, Gandhi TN. Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Aug 6;171(3):153-163 PubMed.



Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 6 / 2019 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Akute Atemwegsinfektionen - wie können Antibiotika vermieden werden?


1. Antibiotic Stewardship – rationaler Einsatz von Antibiotika in der Praxis. Expertenworkshop des Springer Verlags, April 2018.


2. Barnett ML, Linder JA. Antibiotic prescribing to adults with sore throat in the United States, 1997-2010. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(1):138-40 FREE FULL TEXT


3. Barnett ML, Linder JA. Antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute bronchitis in the United States, 1996-2010. JAMA. 2014;311(19):2020-2 FREE FULL TEXT


4. de la Poza Abad M et al. ; Delayed Antibiotic Prescription (DAP) Group. Prescription Strategies in Acute Uncomplicated Respiratory Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Jan;176(1):21-9 PubMed Abstract


5. Harris AM, Hicks LA, Qaseem A; High Value Care Task Force of the American College of Physicians and for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice for High-Value Care From the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Mar 15;164(6):425-34 PubMed Abstract


6.  Welte T. Virale Atemwegsinfektionen: Oft mehr als ein banaler Schnupfen. Pneumologe 2019; 16: 213-214


7. Falsey AR, Hennessey PA, Formica MA, Cox C, Walsh EE. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in elderly and high-risk adults. N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 28;352(17):1749-59 FREE FULL TEXT


8. Ieven M et al. Aetiology of lower respiratory tract infection in adults in primary care: a prospective study in 11 European countries. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018 Nov;24(11):1158-1163 FREE FULL TEXT


9. Chow AW et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America. IDSA clinical practice guideline for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children and adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;54(8):e72-e112 PubMed Abstract


10. McCullough AR, Glasziou PP. Delayed Antibiotic Prescribing Strategies--Time to Implement? JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Jan;176(1):29-30 PubMed


11. Little P et al. Antibiotic prescription strategies and adverse outcome for uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infections: prospective cough complication cohort (3C) study. BMJ. 2017 May 22;357:j2148 FREE FULL TEXT


12. Berner R et al. S2k-Leitlinie (AWMF, akt. Stand 08/215): Therapie entzündlicher Erkrankungen der Gaumenmandeln–Tonsillitis. PDF-Datei


13. Kardos P et al. Leitlinie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin zur Diagnostik und Therapie von erwachsenen Patienten mit Husten (deutsche S2k-Leitlinie) Pneumologie 2019; 73: 143-180 PDF-Datei


14. Vogelmeier C et al. Leitlinie zur Diagnostik und Therapie von Patienten mit chronisch obstruktiver Bronchitis und Lungenemphysem (COPD)* (deutsche S2k-Leitlinie) Pneumologie 2018; 72: 253-308 PDF-Datei


15. Sethi S. Infectious etiology of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Chest. 2000 May;117(5 Suppl 2):380S-5S Review. PubMed Abstract


16. Gompertz S, O'Brien C, Bayley DL, Hill SL, Stockley RA. Changes in bronchial inflammation during acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Eur Respir J. 2001 Jun;17(6):1112-9 PubMed Abstract


17. Butler CC et al. C-Reactive Protein Testing to Guide Antibiotic Prescribing for COPD Exacerbations. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jul 11;381(2):111-120 PubMed Abstract


18. Ewig S et al. Behandlung von erwachsenen Patienten mit ambulant erworbener Pneumonie und Prävention – Update 2016 (deutsche S3-Leitlinie) Pneumologie 2016; 70: 151-200 PDF-Datei



19. Welte T. Influenza – jeder kennt die „Grippe“ und doch wird sie immer noch unterschätzt Pneumologe 2019; 16: 215-231


20. Muthuri SG et al. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors in reducing mortality in patients admitted to hospital with influenza A H1N1pdm09 virus infection: a meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 May;2(5):395-404 Review PubMed Abstract


21. Hayden FG et al.  Baloxavir Marboxil Investigators Group. Baloxavir Marboxil for Uncomplicated Influenza in Adults and Adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2018 Sep 6;379(10):913-923 FREE FULL TEXT




Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 5 / 2019 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Therapie der bakteriellen Meningitis


1. Bock CG. 1898. Das Buch vom gesunden und kranken Menschen, E. Keil´s Nachfolger, Leipzig, 16. Aufl., S. 759-760


2. van Ettekoven CN, Brouwer MC, Bijlsma MW, Wijdicks EFM, van de Beek D. The FOUR score as predictor of outcome in adults with bacterial meningitis. Neurology. 2019 May 28;92(22):e2522-e2526 PubMed abstract


3. McGill F, Heyderman RS, Panagiotou S, Tunkel AR, Solomon T. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults. Lancet. 2016 Dec 17;388(10063):3036-3047 PubMed abstract.


4. Pfister H.-W. et al. S2k-Leitlinie Ambulant erworbene bakterielle (eitrige) Meningoenzephalitis im Erwachsenenalter, Überarbeitung 2018, AWMF-Registernummer: 030/089, PDF-Datei


5. Tattevin P, Solomon T, Brouwer MC. Understanding central nervous system efficacy of antimicrobials. Intensive Care Med. 2019 Jan;45(1):93-96 PubMed abstract


6. van de Beek Det al. ESCMID Study Group for Infections of the Brain (ESGIB). ESCMID guideline: diagnosis and treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 May;22 Suppl 3:S37-62  OPEN ACCESS


7. van Ettekoven CN, van de Beek D, Brouwer MC. Update on community-acquired bacterial meningitis: guidance and challenges. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017 Sep;23(9):601-606 OPEN ACCESS.


8. van Veen KEB, Brouwer MC, van der Ende A, van de Beek D. Bacterial Meningitis in Patients using Immunosuppressive Medication: a Population-based Prospective Nationwide Study. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2017 Jun;12(2):213-218 FREE FULL TEXT


9. Nau R, Djukic M, Spreer A, Ribes S, Eiffert H. Bacterial meningitis: an update of new treatment options. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015;13(11):1401-23 Review. PubMed  abstract




Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 4 / 2019 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Therapie sexuell übertragbarer Infektionen


1. Rowley J et al., Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis: global prevalence and incidence estimates, 2016. Bull WHO, June 6, 2019, Article ID: BLT.18.228486 (PDF-Datei)


2. Buder S, Schöfer H, Meyer T, Bremer V, Kohl PK, Skaletz-Rorowski A, Brockmeyer N. Bakterielle sexuell übertragbare Infektionen. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2019 Mar;17(3):287-317  PubMed Abstract


3. DSTIG (Deutsche STI-Gesellschaft), 2019, Diagnostik und Therapie der Gonorrhoe, AWMF Leitlinie S2k


4. Trcka, Jiri; Schäd, Susanne G.; Pfeuffer, Petra; Raith, Petra; Bröcker, Eva-B.; Trautmann, Axel Penicillintherapie trotz Penicillinallergie? Plädoyer für eine allergologische Diagnostik bei Verdacht auf Penicillinallergie Dtsch Arztebl 2004; 101(43): A-2888 / B-2444 / C-2331


5. Hook EW 3rd. Syphilis. Lancet. 2017 Apr 15;389(10078):1550-1557 PubMed Abstract


6. Newman L, Rowley J, Vander Hoorn S, Wijesooriya NS, Unemo M, Low N, Stevens G, Gottlieb S, Kiarie J, Temmerman M. Global Estimates of the Prevalence and Incidence of Four Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections in 2012 Based on Systematic Review and Global Reporting. PLoS One. 2015 Dec 8;10(12):e0143304 Review. FREE FULL TEXT


7. Buder S, Dudareva S, Jansen K, Loenenbach A, Nikisins S, Sailer A, Guhl E, Kohl PK, Bremer V; GORENET study group. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Germany: low levels of cephalosporin resistance, but high azithromycin resistance. BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 17;18(1):44 FREE FULL TEXT


8. Haar K, Dudareva-Vizule S, Wisplinghoff H, Wisplinghoff F, Sailer A, Jansen K, Henrich B, Marcus U. Lymphogranuloma venereum in men screened for pharyngeal and rectal infection, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Mar;19(3):488-92 FREE FULL TEXT (PDF)


9. Kong FY, Tabrizi SN, Law M, Vodstrcil LA, Chen M, Fairley CK, Guy R, Bradshaw C, Hocking JS. Azithromycin versus doxycycline for the treatment of genital chlamydia infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 15;59(2):193-205 PubMed Abstract


10. Jensen JS, Cusini M, Gomberg M, Moi H. Background review for the 2016 European guideline on Mycoplasma genitalium infections. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Oct;30(10):1686-1693 PubMed


11. Deutsch-Österreichische Leitlinien zur antiretroviralen Therapie der HIV-Infektion Version 7 vom 29.11.2017


12. EASL 2017 (European Association for the Study of the Liver) Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection J Hepatol 2017; 67:370-398


13. EASL 2018 (European Association for the Study of the Liver) EASL Recommendations on Treatment of Hepatitis C 2018 J Hepatol 2018;69:461-511


14. DSTIG (Deutsche STI-Gesellschaft), 2018, Sexuell übertragbare Infektionen (STI) - Beratung, Diagnostik und Therapie, AWMF Leitlinie S2k


15. Sauerbrei A. Herpes Genitalis: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2016 Dec;76(12):1310-1317 FREE FULL TEXT


16. Workowski KA, Bolan, GA Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015 MMWR 2015: 64 / No. 3 / June 5, 2015 FREE FULL TEXT




Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 3 / 2019 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Neue Antibiotika - geht die Entwicklung am Bedarf vorbei?


1: Theuretzbacher U et al. Analysis of the clinical antibacterial and antituberculosis pipeline. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Feb;19(2):e40-e50 PubMed


2: Jean SS, Gould IM, Lee WS, Hsueh PR; International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC). New Drugs for Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Organisms: Time for Stewardship. Drugs. 2019 May;79(7):705-714 PubMed


3: Cox E, Nambiar S, Baden L. Needed: Antimicrobial Development. N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 21;380(8):783-785  PubMed


4: Wagenlehner FME, Cloutier DJ, Komirenko AS, Cebrik DS, Krause KM, Keepers TR,  Connolly LE, Miller LG, Friedland I, Dwyer JP; EPIC Study Group. Once-Daily Plazomicin for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections. N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 21;380(8):729-740 PubMed


5: McKinnell JA, Dwyer JP, Talbot GH, Connolly LE, Friedland I, Smith A, Jubb AM, Serio AW, Krause KM, Daikos GL; CARE Study Group. Plazomicin for Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 21;380(8):791-793 PubMed


6: Guidance for industry: antibacterial therapies for patients with an unmet medical need for the treatment of serious bacterial diseases. Silver Spring, MD: Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 2013



Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 2 / 2019 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Langzeittherapie mit Antibiotika: Gibt es sinnvolle Indikationen?


1: Lau JSY, Korman TM, Woolley I. Life-long antimicrobial therapy: where is the evidence? J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Oct 1;73(10):2601-2612


2: Osmon DR, Berbari EF, Berendt AR, Lew D, Zimmerli W, Steckelberg JM, Rao N, Hanssen A, Wilson WR; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jan;56(1):e1-e25


3: Parvizi J, Gehrke T, Chen AF. Proceedings of the International Consensus on Periprosthetic Joint Infection. Bone Joint J. 2013 Nov;95-B(11):1450-2


4: Leroy O, Meybeck A, Sarraz-Bournet B, d'Elia P, Legout L. Vascular graft infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;25(2):154-8 Review


5: Wilson WR et al. Vascular Graft Infections, Mycotic Aneurysms, and Endovascular Infections: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Nov 15;134(20):e412-e460


6: Sandoe JA et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of implantable cardiac electronic device infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 2015 Feb;70(2):325-59


7: Tan EM, DeSimone DC, Sohail MR, Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Steckelberg JM, Virk A.Outcomes in Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infection Managed With Chronic Antibiotic Suppression. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 1;64(11):1516-1521


8: Jones P, Leder K, Woolley I, Cameron P, Cheng A, Spelman D. Postsplenectomy infection - strategies for prevention in general practice. Aust Fam Physician. 2010 Jun;39(6):383-6


9: Davies JM, Lewis MP, Wimperis J, Rafi I, Ladhani S, Bolton-Maggs PH; British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Review of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of infection in patients with an absent or dysfunctional spleen: prepared on behalf of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology by a working party of the Haemato-Oncology task force. Br J Haematol. 2011 Nov;155(3):308-17 Review



10: Grimwade K, Swingler, G. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in adults with HIV. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD003108 Review


11: Green H, Paul M, Vidal L, Leibovici L. Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV immunocompromised patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD005590 Review


12: Rodriguez M, Fishman JA. Prevention of infection due to Pneumocystis spp. in human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunocompromised patients. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):770-82 Review


13: Dason S, Dason JT, Kapoor A. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Can Urol Assoc J. 2011 Oct;5(5):316-22


14: Williams G, Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Mar 16;(3):CD001534


15: WHO Expert consultation Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 20 October - 1 November 2001. Geneva : World Health Organization


16: Gerber MA, Baltimore RS, Eaton CB, Gewitz M, Rowley AH, Shulman ST, Taubert KA. Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute Streptococcal pharyngitis: a scientific statement

Circulation. 2009 Mar 24;119(11):1541-51.


17: European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2010 Sep;53(3):397-417 Review


18: Runyon BA; AASLD Practice Guidelines Committee. Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis: an update. Hepatology. 2009 Jun;49(6):2087-107


19: Cohen MJ, Sahar T, Benenson S, Elinav E, Brezis M, Soares-Weiser K. Antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites, without gastro-intestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD004791 Review


20: Mogayzel PJ Jr, Naureckas ET, Robinson KA, Mueller G, Hadjiliadis D, Hoag JB, Lubsch L, Hazle L, Sabadosa K, Marshall B; Pulmonary Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines. Chronic medications for maintenance of lung health. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):680-9 Review


21: Zarogoulidis P, Papanas N, Kioumis I, Chatzaki E, Maltezos E, Zarogoulidis K. Macrolides: from in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties to clinical practice in respiratory diseases. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 May;68(5):479-503 Review


22: Wang Y, Zijp TR, Bahar MA, Kocks JWH, Wilffert B, Hak E. Effects of prophylactic antibiotics on patients with stable COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Dec 1;73(12):3231-3243


23: Garner SE, Eady EA, Popescu C, Newton J, Li WA. Minocycline for acne vulgaris: efficacy and safety. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD002086 Review


24: Khan KJ, Ullman TA, Ford AC, Abreu MT, Abadir A, Marshall JK, Talley NJ, Moayyedi P. Antibiotic therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(4):661-73 Review.


25: Wang SL, Wang ZR, Yang CQ. Meta-analysis of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. Exp Ther Med. 2012 Dec;4(6):1051-1056


26: Nitzan O, Elias M, Peretz A, Saliba W. Role of antibiotics for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan 21;22(3):1078-87 Review





Literaturangaben zum Übersichtsartikel aus

Heft 1 / 2019 der Zeitschrift für Infektionstherapie


Therapie der chronischen Hepatitis B


1. von Laer A, Harder T, Zimmermann R, Dudareva S: Virushepatitis B und D im Jahr 2017. Epid Bull 2018;30:285 – 294 (PDF-Datei)


2. Ständige Impfkommission: Empfehlungen der Ständigen Impfkommission (STIKO) am Robert Koch-Institut. Epid Bull 2018;34:335 – 382 (PDF-Datei)


3. Seto WK, Lo YR, Pawlotsky JM, Yuen MF. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Lancet. 2018 Nov 24;392(10161):2313-2324


4. European Association for the Study of the Liver. Electronic address:; European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2017 Aug;67(2):370-398


5. Lai CL et al. Reduction of covalently closed circular DNA with long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment in chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2017 Feb;66(2):275-281


6. Brown RS Jr, McMahon BJ, Lok AS, Wong JB, Ahmed AT, Mouchli MA, Wang Z, Prokop LJ, Murad MH, Mohammed K. Antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B viral infection during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepatology. 2016 Jan;63(1):319-33 FREE FULL TEXT


7. Gois PH et al. Tenofovir during pregnancy in rats: a novel pathway for programmed hypertension in the offspring. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Apr;70(4):1094-105


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